Like most of us, Ann Holmes is at home in Prince George, B.C., looking at a snow-covered landscape and wistfully thinking of the coming golf season.
Unlike most of us, she’s preparing daily for that first swing of the year. And, thanks to YouTube, she can make a virtual house call to help the rest of us do the same thing.
Early in the pandemic, in partnership with BC Golf, Holmes created a series of 11 Facebook Live videos intended to improve flexibility, mobility, strength and range of motion, all with a golf focus.
There’s no question she’s qualified. A PGA of Canada professional, she’s the golf coach at Prince George Golf and Curling Club and the former coach at the University of British Columbia. She’s got a Masters in Human Kinetics and is a certified personal trainer, among numerous other credentials. She, along with Tracie Albisser, also a certified exercise physiologist, operates the Active Health Solutions facility (www.activehealthsolutions.ca ) in Prince George.
“There are lots of online fitness resources but they are mostly for the elite golfer,” says Holmes. “These videos are aimed at the average golfer.”
A large proportion of those “average golfers” this winter are snowbirds and other seniors who, because of travel restrictions necessitated by the pandemic, are stuck north of the border. Holmes suggests they see this not as a disappointment but as an opportunity.
“Off-season training will help maintain the flexibility, endurance and strength you gained in your golf swing over the summer,” she explains. “Instead of taking the winter off, work on all of these fitness essentials for the sport you enjoy.
“The golf swing is a single-action, single-sided, ballistic movement and the goal is to create rotational power for distance. This can be hard on the body, especially the back and shoulders. And when the golf swing is repeated over and over, injuries and issues can crop up. Compounding the concern is that, as we age, we lose muscle mass, flexibility and endurance, which are all fundamental to the golf swing.”
Holmes says one of the most common issues for older golfers is that their posture becomes hunched, with a rounded lower back and an inability to rotate the pelvis into a proper spine angle at address. Her translation: “You need to stick out your behind instead of tucking it under.”
What all of that means, she says, “is that the rotation for the backswing is compromised and people swing with their arms instead of turning their shoulders. Ultimately,this causes a reduction in clubhead speed and weak shots that fade. This position also means that people tend to generate more shearing forces on their lumbar vertebrae (equaling pain in their lower back).
“And, finally, the rounded shoulders will reduce the space for the upper arm bone (the humerus) to move within the joint and people will start to complain of rotator cuff problems and injuries.”
One of her favourite catchphrases is “pre-hab.” Pre-hab is mobility and strength work done on an ongoing basis to address common weaknesses or muscle tension. “The body parts that are meant to be mobile, like your neck, hips, shoulders or thoracic vertebrae, should move with ease,” she says. “When these are tight, other parts will move to compensate during the swing.
“If you can prevent injuries or minor deficits before they become a problem, you will enjoy playing good golf and not lose any distance.”
Holmes’s folksy, friendly, cheerful and chatty “golf coach next door” approach requires no special equipment. A towel, key lanyard, wooden spoon, a thick book and a chair will do for starters. A golf club or similar is handy but not for swinging—just to help with extension. Each video is 30 to 40 minutes but, as she points out, “you can do these at your own pace and your own comfort level.”
Take it from me. The “pause” button comes in handy.
Novelist Paul Theroux once said: “Winter is a season of recovery and preparation.” He could never have imagined just how true those words would ring right now.
Not that we have much choice. Most of us, the sensible ones that is, are staying home because of the pandemic and the precautions imposed to prevent its spread. Kudos to us.
So what’s a golfer to do? We’re mired in a Canadian winter with travel south of the border restricted and limited opportunities to congregate at public golf simulators, ranges or other golf-related activities.
If you don’t have the space, budget or inclination to have a home simulator, there are myriad options to pass the time … “prepare” as Theroux suggested … until, hopefully, golf courses across Canada reopen in spring. Online instruction, social media, podcasts (what?) … even, dare I say, books and magazines … all not only can improve your game but boost your spirits as well.
As an author myself, I may be biased but I enjoy turning the pages of a book or magazine. My special area of interest is course architecture so, after rereading the essentials yet again, I look for Canadian authors. Keith Cutten’s The Evolution of Golf Course Design is a fascinating deep dive into the broader question of not just how course design evolved but why. James Harris’s Stanley Thompson and Icons of Canada has no equal in its in-depth examination of Canada’s most iconic architect as a master of his craft and a man. Although not Canadian and actually intended for green committee members and club managers, many of whom (wrongly) think they are qualified for DIY projects on a multi-million-dollar course, Designs on a Better Golf Course (published by the American Society of Golf Course Architects) is a must-read for armchair architects as well as folks whose hobby is second-guessing their course’s superintendent. For pure “golf porn,” there are few better options than Catalogue 18, a luxurious magazine published in Toronto featuring awesome photography and text from around the world.
WATCH VIDEO TIPS
We were all thankful when the PGA TOUR and LPGA Tour returned to TV in January but if you need more than entertainment and climate envy, there are hundreds of videos on social media, many from PGA of Canada instructors. Derek Ingram, Team Canada’s Men’s Head Coach, posts indoor tips on Instagram. Women’s Head Coach Tristan Mullally offers helpful hints on Twitter. (Just between you and me, Ingram and Mullally are collaborating on an upcoming project that distills their extensive experience into instruction for folks like you and me. Stay tuned.
Once you’ve looked at those videos, you’ll want to practice, so order a putting mat and/or chipping net online. My Golf Spy picked the BirdieBall 4×14 as its best putting mat but the company has a variety of customizable products. Lots of other companies make comparable mats at various price points and in a full range of sizes. A chipping net is a compact and convenient way to hone your short game at a reasonable price. My choice would be the GoSports Chipster. It’s about $60, includes three nets of various sizes and can be used indoors with foam balls or outside with real golf balls.
Fantasy pools, such as PGA TOUR Fantasy Golf, can be a blast if you need some heated competition to warm you up during the winter. Or you can organize your own fantasy league using online resources and invite your friends and colleagues to participate.
You may not have access to that Golden Tee game down at the local pub but you can order the home edition if you’re addicted. More affordable options are video games such as the highly rated PGA TOUR 2K21. Golf nut Shawn Bell of Kelowna, B.C., has not only played the game since its first release several years ago but has actually designed a course for it. He says he enjoys the experience for many reasons including the fact that “it provides me with an outlet to spend time thinking about and playing the game I enjoy so much. There is also the ability to play with others live which is pretty cool. Played a round with an acquaintance in Ireland the other night. It was fun and a social interaction, playing golf, that would otherwise be impossible.”
If, like me, you were late to the world of podcasts, a podcast is a conversation or discussion you can download to your personal device and listen to at your leisure. Makes for great company when you’re walking the dog or when you’re just hankering for the sound of someone else’s voice. (Although I do get some odd glances when I bark back at them when they don’t share my own—indisputably correct—opinion.) There are lots of terrific golf podcasts including some with great Canadian content that I subscribe to like Flagstick.com’s TeeTalk, Golf Talk Canada and Swing Thoughts with Tim O’Connor and “Humble” Howard Glassman.
And, remember, in the words of Ernest Hemingway,
“When spring came, even the false spring, there were no problems except where to be the happiest.”
Golf in 2020: Looking back on a year you’ll never forget
The COVID-19 pandemic has infected millions and killed hundreds of thousands around the world. Almost without exception, everyone was affected in some way. Its effects extended beyond the physical toll, causing emotional, psychological and economic impact. We were hard-pressed to find ways to stay positive and active. Many turned to golf as an outlet, even therapy of sorts.
“What an incredibly strange and challenging year,” Golf Canada CEO Laurence Applebaum said in an interview with The Canadian Press. “Golf has been a silver lining, a bright light, call it what you may, in giving people a bit of a break from the pandemic.”
Record rounds were registered across the country consistently throughout the year, played under strict precautionary COVID-19 protocols.
While participation grew across the country, most tournaments and social gatherings at golf clubs were cancelled or postponed, including the RBC Canadian Open and the CP Women’s Open. The Mackenzie Tour-PGA TOUR Canada cancelled its season. All Golf Canada’s national championships and many provincial association tournaments were shelved.
“We’re going to look back on 2020 and say, ‘amongst all the challenges, amongst a lot of really difficult situations for so many people, golf was a bright light that we built from,’” Applebaum said.
For example, the COVID-19 Golf Relief Fund initiated by Golf Canada and the Canadian Golf Foundation raised more than $400,000. The fund subsidizes non-medical personal protective equipment for golf course employees as well as sanitization, hygiene and protective material expenses. It also subsidizes rounds of golf for front-line workers as well as juniors.
What follows are some of the top golf-related stories from 2020, a very different year. These are just some of the headlines. Details on these stories and many others are available under News on the Golf Canada website.
The new World Handicap System came into effect with the goal of making the game more enjoyable by providing a consistent means of measuring performance and progress and to enable golfers of differing abilities to compete or play a casual round with anyone else on a fair and equal basis.
Jared du Toit, a member of Golf Canada’s Young Pro Squad, won the PGA TOUR Latinoamerica Qualifying Tournament Mexico.
Grace McCann of Windsor, Ont., a past president of the former Canadian Ladies’ Golf Association, passed away at the age of 85.
The Golf Journalists Association of Canada named Brooke Henderson (female professional), Corey Conners (male professional), Garrett Rank (male amateur) and Brigitte Thibault (female amateur) as players of the year for 2019.
Charlie Beaulieu of Lorraine, Que., was elected for a second term at Golf Canada’s annual meeting. Liz Hoffman of Thornhill, Ont., and Dale Jackson of Victoria remain as first and second vice-president respectively. Bill MacMillan of Eastern Passage, N.S., received the Bruce Mitchell Volunteer of the Year Award. Volunteer Richard Smith of Regina and golf journalist Ian Hutchison of Newmarket, Ont., received Golf Canada’s Distinguished Service Award.
Celeste Dao of Notre-Dame-de-L’lle-Perrot, Que., a graduate of Team Canada’s National Junior Squad, won the NCAA’s Gold Rush tournament in California.
Golf Canada named the 2020 Young Pro Squads: Hugo Bernard, Jared du Toit, Stuart Macdonald, Taylor Pendrith, Chris Crisologo and Joey Savoie for the men and Jaclyn Lee, Brittany Marchand and Maddie Szeryk for the women.
As the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic enveloped not only Canada but the world, governments ordered the shutdown of non-essential businesses, which in most provinces included golf courses.
The Summer Olympics, scheduled to begin in July in Tokyo, are postponed until 2021 due to the pandemic. They will still be called the Olympic and Paralympic Games Tokyo 2020, however.
Canadian Scott Pritchard, previously vice-president of the Mackenzie Tour-PGA TOUR Canada, is promoted to executive director.
Due to the coronavirus pandemic, most golf courses across Canada did not open on schedule this spring. Although those in British Columbia were never ordered to close, those in other provinces were shuttered until they were allowed to open when stringent anti-COVID safeguards were in place. New Brunswick courses opened April 24 with the balance of the provinces following suit throughout the month of May.
Golf Canada announced the formation of the Golf Industry Advisory Council, a volunteer group of experienced professionals to support Golf Canada’s Board of Directors and management team. The council will include course owners, operators, general managers, superintendents and professionals as well as executives from the golf equipment, apparel and footwear industry.
Canada’s Sports Hall of Fame announced Lorie Kane of Charlottetown was among six athletes and five builders who will receive the Order of Sports award, Canada’s highest sporting honour.
The Prince Edward Island Golf Association named Alison Griffin as its new executive director.
The PGA TOUR announced that it would resume without spectators in June. The Tour had suspended play since The Players Championship was cancelled in March.
Despite months of planning, the celebration of the 125th anniversary of the founding of Golf Canada on June 6, 1895, also fell victim to the pandemic. Nevertheless, the historic occasion was commemorated virtually with pivotal moments in Canadian golf being recalled on social media platforms using the hashtag #GolfCanada125.
The Golf Canada Women in Coaching Program, a partnership between Golf Canada and the PGA of Canada with the goal of putting the sport on the path to further balance between the sexes at a high level, was announced.
Golf Canada and U.S.-based First Tee announced the launch of First Tee-Canada. The partnership will bring First Tee’s youth development emphasis to strengthen Golf Canada’s junior golf activities —previously conducted under the Future Links brand — that reach kids in schools and at golf facilities. The innovative First Tee curriculum will focus on empowering young people to build strength of character through the game of golf.
The third annual CP Women’s Leadership Summit, held virtually due to the pandemic, provided inspiring stories and a networking opportunity along with accepting donations for the B.C. Children’s Hospital Foundation. Hosted by TSN anchor Lindsay Hamilton, speakers included golfers Lorie Kane and Brooke Henderson, Olympians Marnie McBean and Perdita Felicien and other prominent women in leadership positions. “It was a success story for us,” said Mary Beth McKenna, assistant RBC Canadian Open tournament director who has co-led the event since it began.
The Golf Journalists Association of Canada announced that Kim Locke of Toronto, founder and president of SCOREGolf, was the 2020 recipient of the Dick Grimm Award. The association’s highest honour is awarded in memory of the late Richard Grimm whose legendary service to the RBC Canadian Open and the Canadian golf industry remains unparalleled.
Laurent Desmarchais of Bromont, Que., a member of Team Canada’s junior squad, went wire-to-wire to win the season-ending Canada Life Series Championship at TPC Toronto at Osprey Valley.
PGA TOUR Champions rookie Mike Weir of Bright’s Grove, Ont., had victory in sight leading by three strokes heading into the final round of the Dominion Energy Charity Classic in Virginia but fellow rookie Phil Mickelson denied him the win. It was Weir’s third top-10 finish in eight starts on the tour.
PGA of Canada member Jennifer Greggain of Chilliwack, B.C., was named coach of the National Junior Squads by Golf Canada, working with head coach Robert Ratliffe.
Findlay Young of Prince George, B.C., a former Golf Canada president and honourary life governor, passed away at the age of 92.
Twenty-nine athletes, male and female, were named by Golf Canada to represent Team Canada as part of the 2021 national Amateur and Junior Squads. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all athletes from the 2020 squad were able to return in 2021, provided they met team eligibility criteria.
Aaron Cockerill of Stone Mountain, Man., finished T4 at the JoBurg Open in South Africa, his best career finish on the European Tour.
The Economic Impact of Golf in Canada (2019) report, conducted on behalf of the national Allied Golf Associations (We Are Golf), was released. Among its findings were that the Canadian golf industry generated $18.2 billion in economic benefits, employs the equivalent of nearly 249,000 people through direct and spin-off effects and contributed to $10.6 billion in household income.
⛳️ Accounts for an estimated $18.2B of Canada’s GDP ⛳️ Directly employed nearly 150,000 full-time positions ⛳️ Contributed $4.8B in household income
Corey Conners of Listowel, Ont., finished in a tie for 10th at the Masters, which was postponed from its traditional April date due to the pandemic. That finish guaranteed him a spot in the 2021 Masters.
Golf Genius Software, the leading worldwide provider of tournament management solutions, announced that Golf Canada and the provincial golf associations will begin using Golf Genius Tournament Management for their competitions in 2021.
So while what lies ahead for 2021 remains unclear, we can only hope that when we compile next year’s “Year in Review,” life as we know it will have returned to a semblance of normality, on the course and off.
Thoughtful holiday gifts for the golfer in your life
Anyone who knows me knows I love Christmas. Heck, I even own a Santa suit and still think my grandson believes I’m the real thing when I show up at his house on Christmas morning.
So, as you read on, please don’t label me the Golfing Grinch.
With that disclaimer, and I am sure I speak on behalf of avid golfers everywhere, spare us the trinkets and trash when buying a gift for us this year.
I don’t want another plastic clicker to count my strokes or a gopher headcover or a tee shaped like a martini glass or … You get the picture.
Actually, I didn’t know what I wanted until I read a tweet from Listowel Golf Club. “Merry Golfmas!” I shouted.
Gift card to a big box store? OK. You can buy stuff. Gift card to a Golf Club? WAYYY BETTER. You can buy stuff, play golf, rent a cart, buy lunch, buy refreshments, use them towards memberships, enter events….etc…etc… Buy them online at https://t.co/DXeg1f7AsN
“Golf clubs have the answer to the eternal question of what to buy the golfer,” says the tweet’s author, Brenden Parsons. Parsons, the club’s director of operations, says your local golf facility most likely offers a variety of gift options that will make for a very special Christmas for the golfer on your list — or yourself.
Here are a few examples. Check with your local golf facility to see what they offer.
Listowel GC offers an online store featuring gift cards of various denominations, golf clubs, footwear and apparel. One unique option is the Christmas Date Night Box which, depending on which level you select, offers a variety of appetizers and even wine. Share it with your partner or even arrange a Zoom party where everyone enjoys their own “Date Night” selection at home. Call it a virtual office Christmas party. “Our food and beverage team came up with the concept,” says Parsons. “It somewhat offsets the fact that there will be no Christmas or New Year’s parties this year.”
Visit the Golf Canada online shop to select logoed gear ranging from apparel, footwear, bags and balls to mementoes of the association’s 125th Many items are discounted for holiday shopping.
The ubiquitous gift card is put to good use by many golf clubs. The options range from cash value redeemable at the course to paying part or all of a membership and/or a cart package, packs of green fees, lessons, club fittings and other services. “This reinforces the value of the club professional,” says Adam Frederick, communications manager for the PGA of Canada. “They are great retailers and experts in instruction and club fitting. This is especially important if you are looking for a gift for a new or junior golfer. Get them started on the right track.”
Make a donation to the Golf Canada Foundation in the name of the gift’s recipient. The Foundation, a registered Canadian Amateur Athletic Association, raises and grants funds for the advancement of golf in Canada in five main areas: junior golf, collegiate golf, women’s golf, high-performance golf and heritage.
Members at Cataraqui Golf and Country Club in Kingston, Ont., get a chance at an additional 20 per cent off their holiday purchase if they drop off a non-perishable food item at the pro shop.
If you live in the Greater Toronto Region, how about a gift certificate for a one- or two-hour fitting session at the Titleist National Fitting Centre located at Eagle’s Nest Golf Club? (Call 905-553-8555 for details.) Specialty shops like Modern Golf, TXG, GolfTEC and others offer winter specials for club fittings, lessons and more.
Ladies’ Golf Club of Toronto offers a variety of services including a holiday cooking class and their own label honey and chutney. Glencoe Golf and Country Club in Calgary has an online holiday marketplace.
Aside from providing great value, patronizing your golf club helps support the industry which, like us all, has suffered due to the economic downturn caused by the impact of the coronavirus pandemic.
Another aspect of giving a gift certificate for future golf-related activities or purchases is that it provides a much-needed sense of optimism for a 2021 golf season full of promise, good health and lots of time outside on the course.
How to make your lawn perfect like a golf superintendent
Note to readers: As COVID-19 continues its impact, some garden centres, lawn maintenance companies and equipment rental outlets are open in some regions while others are not. Therefore, some of the tips provided here may not be practical at this time. However, no matter what the circumstances, gardening remains a healthy form of self-isolation!
You back out of the driveway, heading for the golf course, and as you pull away, you look at your lawn and ask yourself, “Why can’t that goat pasture look like the fairways at my course?”
The obvious answer is “time and resources,” according to Sean Gunn, superintendent at The Country Club in Woodbridge, Ont. “We spend hundreds of hours a week maintaining our turf and the average homeowner spends, what, an hour or two? You just can’t expect the same results.”
It’s much like watching the pros at the RBC Canadian Open or the CP Women’s Canadian Open and wondering why you can’t play the game at their level. When the pros aren’t playing, they’re working on their games. When you’re not playing, you’re most likely just working.
But just like a few lessons with a PGA of Canada pro will elevate your game significantly, cadging some tips, hints and hacks from members of the Canadian Golf Superintendents Association and other turf experts will help improve your lawn.
The Cutting Edge
First thing in the spring, sharpen your lawnmower blade. You can do it yourself with a file or grinder (always following the proper safety guidelines) or take it to a local small-engine repair shop. At The Country Club, Gunn sharpens the blades of any of his members who bring them to his shop. “If your blade isn’t sharp, you’re tearing the grass plant, not cutting it,” Gunn says.
Cut at 2.5 inches (about six centimetres) or higher to encourage deeper root growth. Taller grass can better handle drought conditions and shades the soil, helping prevent weeds from sprouting.
Under normal conditions, cut your lawn at least once a week and don’t cut off more than a third of the leaf blade. Cutting more than that stresses the grass. Leave the clippings on the lawn as they provide a source of nutrition for the grass. Cut in a different direction each time.
The more you cut, the denser the lawn will become.
“Grass wants to grow, so if you keep cutting it, it will find other ways to get larger and grow new tillers [shoots],” says Gunn. “This is how we get putting greens to be so dense.”
Water, water everywhere
Course superintendent Ken Bruneski is sure his course is “the hottest property in Canada,” so if anyone is qualified to speak about watering guidelines for lawn, it’s him.
Located in a semi-arid desert near Oliver, B.C., NK’Mip Canyon Desert Golf Course sees many days each season with temperatures reaching 40C.
With higher temperatures being witnessed across Canada due to climate change, Bruneski’s experience provides valuable advice for homeowners.
With the luxury of a sophisticated irrigation system, he waters his fairway deeply three times a week during the overnight period.
“It drives me nuts to drive down the street and see houses with sprinklers going non-stop during the heat of the day. That’s not helping your lawn at all. In fact, it’s harming it.”
Depending on the amount of rainfall, the average lawn needs a deep watering (two to three centimetres) a couple of times a week, ideally in the evening.
“One irrigation hack is if thunderstorms are coming and your lawn is pretty dry and you happen to be home, water your lawn to get the surface wet to break down the surface tension so the rain from the cloudburst can be accepted into the lawn,” advises Dr. Eric Lyons, Associate Professor of Turfgrass Science in the University of Guelph’s Department of Plant Agriculture.
“Proper water management is paramount in the success of the lawn,” says Gunn. If you’re really into it, he recommends you purchase a rain gauge. For about $10, it’s an inexpensive and accurate method of monitoring your lawn’s water input.
Those pesky pests
“A healthy lawn is just like a healthy human who doesn’t have to see the doctor that often,” says Gunn.
Alan Golick agrees. Now a sales representative for Lawn Life Natural Turf Products (www.lawnlifenaturalturfproducts.com), Golick has 20 years’ experience in the turf business, including stints as an assistant course superintendent.
With environmentally conscious bans on traditional herbicides and pesticides, companies like Lawn Life are continually developing alternatives to control weeds and pests. Company founder Richard Reed was a trailblazer in this category and the company now services the turf industry, lawn-care companies and homeowners.
Golick recommends a proactive approach to weed control, suggesting a selective herbicide that targets dandelions, plantain, creeping charlie and other common weeds. More importantly, he says homeowners must ensure good fertility in their soil by introducing, among other elements, composted fertilizer and more exotic inputs such as kelp (seaweed), humic acid, and compost tea (simply a mix of compost and water).
“A great lawn starts and ends with healthy soil, a healthy eco-system,” he says.
Lyons, who is also the director of the Guelph Turfgrass Institute, says if you have a healthy lawn, hand weed in the spring and apply a chemical control in the fall.
“If you have significant weeds, then a spring application would be recommended. To get the most effective control with iron-based alternative weed-control products, apply them in enough volume according to the label. That requires two applications three weeks apart.”
He also advises to apply a broadleaf weed control product before the first frost in the fall. If using an iron-based product, the daytime temperature should be about 20C consistently for both the first application and the next one three weeks later.
Enrich your experience
“What I see the most is homeowners not fertilizing or fertilizing at the wrong time,” observes John Scott, superintendent at Summerlea Golf and Country Club in Vaudreuil-Dorion, Que.
Not that you want to spend your holiday long weekends working on your lawn but if you are serious about keeping that grass well fed, Mark Schneider says you should get your spreader out four times a season: Victoria Day, Canada Day, Labour Day and Thanksgiving.
In the spring, resist the urge to fertilize before May 24.
“The grass is still waking up from the winter and trying to build its roots. The key is to apply the right amount at the right time at the right rate and at the right place.”
Schneider, who was the superintendent at several Ontario courses, now is the technical sales representative for NuTrite (www.nutrite.com), a leading supplier of fertilizers to golf courses, lawn-care companies and homeowners.
Along with his easy-to-remember schedule, he has some other simple tips for fertilizing.
“Buy a premium product with a high slow-release factor. Follow the instructions on the bag. Don’t over-fertilize. Avoid the economy brands.
“The most important thing is to get a fertilizer where the first number is the highest.”
You no doubt have gone shopping for fertilizer and seen three numbers on the bag. 10-10-10. 12-0-4. 33-0-3. And so on. Starter fertilizer, spring fertilizer, fall fertilizer… It doesn’t have to be confusing.
Those numbers identify the proportions of three elements: Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Of those three, experts agree the first one—nitrogen—is the most important.
“Most lawns do not need much phosphorus,” says Lyons, adding that, in general, “the last number on the bag should be about half to equivalent of the first number.”
Generally, says Schneider, use the same fertilizer all year long.
Our experts are divided on whether you should aerate and/or dethatch your lawn annually. (Back in the day, some folks swore they were aerating their lawn by wearing their metal golf spikes while mowing.)
Aeration is the process of removing plugs of soil from your lawn to relieve the compaction and introduce air, water and nutrients to the roots. Dethatching removes the layer of dead and decaying plant material between your grass and the soil. While a certain amount of thatch is beneficial, too much insulates the roots from getting enough water, oxygen and fertilizer.
You can rent a power aerator and/or a dethatcher or hire a lawn service to do the job. Small lawns can be dethatched with a specially designed rake while larger properties will require a power unit.
Lyons and Bruneski downplay the necessity of these practices for the average home lawn but Scott Bowman begs to differ.
According to the Speare Seeds web site (www.speareseeds.ca), Bowman is the company’s general manager and “turf genius,” so his opinion is well worth considering.
He suggests aerating your lawn in the late summer or early fall but never in the spring and early summer. “If you aerate in the early part of the season, those holes are a perfect spot for weed seeds to fall into and germinate. Now instead of a great lawn, you’ve created really healthy and deep-rooted weeds.”
When it comes to anything turf-related, Bowman’s credentials are impeccable. That “turf genius” tag is no joke. Prior to his current role, he was a superintendent at some notable courses, including Glen Abbey Golf Club. He also is co-owner of South Port Golf Course in Southampton, Ont.
As soon as the snow melts, our pent-up desire to get a head start on our lawns is released. But Bowman and other experts say hold your horses, rein in that impulse.
“Everybody’s excited to get going, but if you don’t time it right [seeding], you’re just wasting your time and effort and money,” says Bowman. “You won’t get real germination and if the seed sits there long enough, it loses its viability.” That’s “turf genius speak” for “the seed is dead.”
Before you think about seeding or over-seeding your lawn, wait until the soil temperature is at least 12 to 16C. You can either use the familiar broadcast seeder or rent a slit-seeder which creates gaps into which it inserts seeds. In any case, the seed must have contact with the soil to germinate.
According to Bowman, your lawn should be over-seeded every year, preferably in mid-August when the days are warm, the nights are cool, the dew is heavy and the fall rains start to arrive. It’s a good time, he says, to incorporate this with your aeration and/or dethatching.
When it comes to the type of seed to use, Bowman says that is dictated by a couple of factors: the type of soil and how much effort you want to dedicate to your lawn.
“Every lawn is a reclamation project to one extent or another. It all depends on what your personal threshold is.”
Don’t even think about bentgrass, favoured by most courses for tees, greens and fairways.
Bowman says bluegrass, most commonly used for the rough on courses, has shallow but aggressive roots. “It’s a nice, high-end grass but requires more inputs [of water and nutrients].” The fine fescues are more drought resistant while perennial ryegrass “grows just about anywhere.” That’s why most seeds sold at retail are blends of these types.
Raking: More harm than good?
According to Lyons, the theory behind raking is that it removes old leaf and stem tissue, allowing the soil to warm up and the grass to grow more vigorously in the spring. However, much like aerating early in the season, raking opens up the soil and allows it to warm, causing increased germination of weeds.
“You don’t see them raking the rough at the golf course, do you?” says Lyons. “Generally, the effort put into aggressive raking would be better spent elsewhere on your lawn unless you have tree leaves to remove or you’re renovating a weedy lawn.”
Having said that, aggressive raking in the spring will remove dead crab grass and/or annual weeds from the previous year and allow over-seeding to take hold. In an area with limited weed controls, he adds, raking does more harm than good and also is a lot of work.
Old Man Winter
The first step to prepare your lawn for the oncoming winter, says Gunn, is to stop cutting the grass to let it “harden off.” In Woodbridge, Ont., where his course is located, this is about the third week of October.
“Hardening off is letting the plant prepare itself by sealing the last cut you did to prevent any carbohydrate loss. Carbs/sugar are the antifreeze that keeps the plant alive during the winter. The more carbs/sugars, the heartier the plant.
“Letting the plant grow a little longer in the spring and fall is a good idea since the daylight is shorter and the strength of the sun is weaker. The longer the blade, the more efficient the plant is at photosynthesis.
“I use the analogy of grass and solar panels. The more solar panels you have, the more energy you can attract. “
The key to a good spring is strong preparation in the fall. Schneider says about 80 per cent of your lawn-care efforts should be focused on the period from August to November.
Lyons emphasizes the importance of removing leaves as they fall and don’t allow them to get trapped under the snow.
When it comes to your lawn, like your golf game, you likely will never be a pro. But if you practise the fundamentals, you can be a respectable amateur.
Having said that, Canada has a diverse ecosystem and while the preceding are general guidelines, you may have to adapt them to your specific area. Speak to a local turf expert—like the superintendent at your course.